JUMLA, Dec. 6 -- This time, Birendra Budha of Sija Rural Municipality - 4 was not willing to go to Kalapahad at all. He wanted to find a job in his village. Though his friends left for Kalapahad, he remained at home. Months passed, but Budha got no work. Disappointed, he followed his friends and head out for Kalapahad. In Jumla going to India is referred to as going to Kalapahad.

"This year I had no desire to go Kalapahad looking for work. But as I didn't get any job at home, I was left with no option other than to go," said Budha who had recently returned home for a short time from Kalapani, India. "I have to go back. I took leave for a few days."

In Kalapani, Budha does all sorts of menial jobs including carrying goods on his back. "I...